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فتش عن النفط …. بقلم الاستاذ عزيز الدفاعي

الأثر نيوز /بغداد

لماذا التذابح الأردوغاني ـ البرزاني ـ النجيفي على الموصل؟

في مهنة البحث عن المتاعب يكون أول درس وحكمة ألا ننظر إلى الجزء الطافي من السفينة فقط بل لثلثها الغاطس في الماء أيضاً… هذه هي قوانين الفيزياء التي تصلح في السياسة أيضاً… لعلّ من بين الأسباب غير المعلنة وراء التركيز على الموصل ما يتعلق منها بالنفط العراقي ومحاولات بعض الأطراف استخدام أوراق الضغط السياسية لإجبار الحكومة على إرخاء قبضتها ومقايضة الذهب الأسود بالسلطة والكراسي. عام 2012 أشرتُ في مقال مفصل، اعتماداً على معلومات من مصادر موثوقة، إلى أنّ الصراع على الموصل إضافة إلى بعده الجيوسياسي إنما يتعلق أيضاً بخطوط الغاز المارة من الشرق الأوسط وبحر قزوين إلى أوروبا لتقليل الاعتماد على الغاز الروسي، أهمّ اسلحة الكرملين، خاصة بعد فشل مشروع ناباكو نبوخذ نصر واتفاق الروس مع الأتراك على مشروع تركش ستريم متجاوزين أوكرانيا والبحر الأسود إلى تركيا وصولاً إلى النمسا وبطاقة إنتاجية تصل إلى 32 مليار متر مكعب من الغاز سنوياً. من هنا بدأ التنافس بين كبريات شركات النفط العالمية للحصول على جزء من آبار النفط العراقي الغزيرة وما اكتشف من احتياطيات كبيرة للغاز شمال العراق الذي تطمع تركيا باستغلاله ليمرّ عبر أراضيها. لم يقتصر الأمر على الخلاف المعروف بين إقليم كردستان وبغداد بسبب هذا الموضوع، وإنما وصل الأمر إلى درجة مطالبة بعض رؤساء المحافظات بالدخول على الخط واعتبار «أنّ لديهم ذات السلطة والصلاحية التي تتمتع بها حكومة إقليم كردستان في الدستور، ليس هناك فرق بين المحافظات والأقاليم» ! وفقاً لتصريح اثيل النجيفي شقيق رئيس البرلمان السابق ربيع عام 2012 أحد أقطاب الأزمة الراهنة، مؤكداً أنه التقى ممثلين عن أكسون موبيل خلف ظهر وزارة النفط وناقش إمكانية أن تصبح محافظته طرفاً في الاتفاق بين إقليم كردستان وأكسون موبيل! إن اثنتين، من هذه الرقع الاستكشافية الستة التي كانت مصدر انفجار الأزمة السياسية التي جمعت قوى وتيارات سياسية متناقضة بإدارة أربيل تقعان في محافظة نينوى، وهما الرقعتان المتعلقتان بتركيبي بعشيقة والقوش. أما الرقعة الثالثة فتقع في «المناطق المتنازع عليها» في محافظة كركوك، في تركيب «قره انجير»، والتي تقع شمال مدينة كركوك باتجاه السليمانية ، والتابعة لمحافظة كركوك، وكانت تدار من قبل الحكومة المركزية قبل الاحتلال وتقع الرقعة الاستكشافية الرابعة ضمن حدود الإقليم وعلى الحدود العراقية الإيرانية. للتذكير فقط فإنّ حكومة إقليم كردستان أعلنت في 10/11/2011 أنها وقعت مع شركة أكسون موبيل ExxonMobil أضخم شركات الطاقة في العالم على عقود مشاركة للتنقيب والإنتاج لست رقع استكشافية. وكما ظهر لاحقاً أنّ العقود الستة كان قد تمّ توقيعها في 18/10/2011، ولم يتمّ الإعلان عنها من قبل مدراء الشركة الذين كانوا في بغداد وقابلوا الدكتور حسين الشهرستاني وزير النفط السابق وغيره من المعنيين، بعد التوقيع عليها مع الأكراد، لمحاولة إقناع وزارة النفط بالموافقة على مثل هذه العقود، والتقوا كذلك السفير الأميركي السابق في بغداد لنفس الغرض دون الحصول على الضوء الأخضر لكنّ الموقف بقي رمادياً. رئيس إقليم كردستان العراق مسعود البارزاني صرح في نيسان الماضي أنّ شركة أكسون موبيل لن تتخلى عن العقد على الرغم من تهديدات الحكومة المركزية لها بفسخ العقد معها في تطوير حقل غرب القرنة في البصرة. وكانت وزارة النفط قد استبعدت في نيسان 2012 شركة أكسون موبيل من جولة التراخيص الرابعة التي أقيمت في نهاية شهر أيار الماضي، من دون التطرق إلى مصير عقدها في حقل غرب القرنة لكي لا تتسبّب في مواجهة لا تحمد عقباها. فيما أعلنت حكومة كردستان، أنّ الإقليم سيصدّر النفط الخام من حقوله في آب 2013 عبر شبكة أنابيب مستقلة تصل إلى ميناء جيهان التركي، وكتحدّ للحكومة صرّحت أنها ستستقطع 17 من إيرادات تلك الصادرات وتسلّم المتبقي إلى الحكومة المركزية. لقد أوضحت الحكومة العراقية لاكسون موبيل أنّ عملها في مناطق «متنازع عليها» غير قانوني، لا سيما أنها خاضعة للمادة 140 من الدستور العراقي، وهذه المناطق تقع تحت سيطرة وإدارة الحكومة الاتحادية، لغاية استكمال تنفيذ متطلبات هذه المادة. لكن الذي جرى، بعد سقوط الموصل بيد داعش تمكن البرزاني من فرض سيطرته على أغلب المناطق المتنازع عليها وهو ما أثار ارتياح عملاق النفط «اكسون موبيل». إنّ المعلومات التي حصلت عليها الحكومة السابقة ونشرتها في حينها تؤكد وجود صفقة سرية برعاية أنقرة مع محافظ نينوى اثيل النجيفي تتضمّن التنازل عن أراضي نينوى بشريط طوله 10 كلم لمحافظة دهوك الواقعة ضمن إقليم كردستان، ويضمّ هذا الشريط قضائي شيخان والقوش اللذين يحويان على عشرين مليار برميل نفط فقط! أيّ أنّ قيمة هذا النفط الخام تكفي لإعادة أعمار العراق بأكمله… ولعلّ هذا ما يفسّر بعضا مما شهدته الموصل في حزيران/ يونيو من عام 2014 وسقوطها المسرحي والأطراف التي ساهمت في دخول داعش، بينما يرتدي اثيل النجيفي اليوم بزته العسكرية لتسويقه كأحد أبطال التحرير وهو يضع شروطه محدّداً هوية من سيقتحم الموصل ومن لا يحق له ذلك! ولا أدري، هل ورث هذه الأرض من أجداده ليمنحها بوعد لأربيل؟ أو يتعامل مع دولة اجنبية مثل تركيا مدافعاً عن وجودها العسكري غير المشروع على الأراضي العراقية؟ إنه وعد من لا يملك حقاً ولا يستحي لمن لا يستحق؟ ..انتهى

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